In the margin are given illustrations of one or two forms found in books, but no ancient examples have been observed. Rompu and failli seem to be used by them when the sides of the chevron are broken into one or more pieces. In chevron would be applied to charges arranged chevronwise. See at end of Chevron. Chevronelly appears to be used more correctly. With the older writers, however, the term chevron is used, and so may still be used when there are two or even three chevrons. Or, three chevronels gules. Or, three chevronels per pale, the first azure and gules, the second gules and azure, the third as the first. Argent, two chevronels sable, between three roses gules, barbed and seeded proper. Mary at Winchester and at Oxford.
Mesopotamia In the museum at Baghdad, in the British Museum , and in the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia are finely executed objects in beaten copper from the royal graves at Ur modern Tall al-Muqayyar in ancient Sumer. This relief illustrates the high level of art and technical skill attained by the Sumerians in the days of the 1st dynasty of Ur c.
The malleability of unalloyed copper, which renders it too soft for weapons, is peculiarly valuable in the formation of vessels of every variety of form; and it has been put to this use in almost every age. Copper domestic vessels were regularly made in Sumer during the 4th millennium bc and in Egypt a little later. Egypt From whatever source Egypt may have obtained its metalworking processes, Egyptian work at a remote period possesses an excellence that, in some respects, has never been surpassed.
Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region. The preceding period is known as the Pre-Romanesque period. The term was invented by 19th-century art historians, especially for Romanesque architecture, which retained many basic features of Roman architectural style – most notably round-headed.
History[ edit ] Although forms of brass have been in use since prehistory ,  its true nature as a copper-zinc alloy was not understood until the post medieval period because the zinc vapor which reacted with copper to make brass was not recognised as a metal. Many have similar tin contents to contemporary bronze artefacts and it is possible that some copper-zinc alloys were accidental and perhaps not even distinguished from copper. There is good archaeological evidence for this process and crucibles used to produce brass by cementation have been found on Roman period sites including Xanten  and Nidda  in Germany , Lyon in France  and at a number of sites in Britain.
The fabric of these crucibles is porous, probably designed to prevent a buildup of pressure, and many have small holes in the lids which may be designed to release pressure  or to add additional zinc minerals near the end of the process. Dioscorides mentioned that zinc minerals were used for both the working and finishing of brass, perhaps suggesting secondary additions.
These places would remain important centres of brass making throughout the medieval period,  especially Dinant. Brass objects are still collectively known as dinanterie in French. The metal of the early 12th-century Gloucester Candlestick is unusual even by medieval standards in being a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel , iron, antimony and arsenic with an unusually large amount of silver , ranging from The proportions of this mixture may suggest that the candlestick was made from a hoard of old coins, probably Late Roman.
Aquamaniles were typically made in brass in both the European and Islamic worlds.
History[ edit ] Although forms of brass have been in use since prehistory ,  its true nature as a copper-zinc alloy was not understood until the post medieval period because the zinc vapor which reacted with copper to make brass was not recognised as a metal. Many have similar tin contents to contemporary bronze artefacts and it is possible that some copper-zinc alloys were accidental and perhaps not even distinguished from copper.
There is good archaeological evidence for this process and crucibles used to produce brass by cementation have been found on Roman period sites including Xanten  and Nidda  in Germany , Lyon in France  and at a number of sites in Britain. The fabric of these crucibles is porous, probably designed to prevent a buildup of pressure, and many have small holes in the lids which may be designed to release pressure  or to add additional zinc minerals near the end of the process.
Dioscorides mentioned that zinc minerals were used for both the working and finishing of brass, perhaps suggesting secondary additions.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D. Browse the Encyclopedia by clicking on any of the letters below. A | B | C | D | E | F.
Unraveling the Cove-Jones Cipher Read the article on one page On October 25th this year, the Vatican released a document that had remained in its secret archives for seven hundred years. It is the report of the official Church investigation into the activities of the Knights Templar in the early fourteenth century.
In October , these crusader knights were found guilty of idolatry, blasphemy, and heresy, and their order was dissolved. Some were burned at the stake, others imprisoned, and most were stripped of their assets. Astonishingly, this extraordinary document reveals how the Vatican enquiry found no evidence of wrongdoing. It was the Pope himself, Clement V, who directly intervened and declared the Templars heretics.
The report appears to show that the pontiff was after their wealth, said to include priceless treasures once housed in the temple of Jerusalem and lost when the city was sacked in ancient times. But despite the arrest and torture of leading Templars, and the wholesale seizure of their lands, nothing of this fabled hoard was ever found. Most historians doubt the existence of the Templar treasure.
However, my research suggests that one of the ancient relics they are said to have possessed may have been hidden in central Britain. Hallowed Relics In the heart of England, close to Stratford-upon-Avon, famous as the birthplace of William Shakespeare, is the village of Temple Herdewyke, named after the Templars who once resided there. After the Third Crusade in the late twelfth century, these Templars returned from the Holy Land to build a chapel to house certain holy relics they claimed to have found.
Candlestick in the Billiards Room: Bantock House Museum and Park
The case is rectangular, with a hinged lid, the sliding mechanism is easy to control with the thumb. These have also been described as vesta cases for long vestas, the slide being the matchstrike, we think this attribution is incorrect. Henry Williamson worked between and , so a career cut off by the advent of World War I. Note – we have 2 similar examples of this needhams patent card case.
James the Greater, St.
Collectable antique silver, sterling silver, Georgian silver, antique silver spoons, silver flatware, silver hallmarks, silver antiques, famous makers, useful.
The plate is fabulous quality, very heavy, the bears 4 sets of 3 are cast and applied, the detail is lovely. Mappin and Webb was founded in , it still exists today and is one of Britain’s most prestigious brands. The was produced just after the end of World War II, silver was very cheap, items from this period are often heavy and superb quality. One of the nicest Christening present a baby could hope to receive. Note – we have 2 matching items, a mug and bowl, S and S The brooch is rectangular, with a wavy crosshatch bar pattern interspersed with 3 different sizes of silver balls, this has been described as the Jensen “Silver Ball” brooch.
The brooch is clearly hallmarked with interesting marks, 6 distinct punch groupings have been used, so quite unusual to have so many hallmarks on such a small piece. The first 4 marks would have been added in Denmark, the last 2 on import into London in The forks are a pleasing weight, and very good quality, they have a lovely feel. The forks are engraved with an interesting family crest, a leopards head with an arrow in its mouth, this is unusually engraved on the back of the forks.
We welcome any assistance with identification of the family crest. The spoon has the traditional measuring spoon shape, with circular spherical bowl and long flat handle. The spoon has an interesting triple rat-tail joining the bowl to the handle. The hallmarks are on the front of the spoon, and are well struck, they could not be better.
Antique Treen & Other Wooden Bygones
Stavelot Triptych , Mosan , Belgium, c. Metalwork, including decoration in enamel , became very sophisticated. Many spectacular shrines made to hold relics have survived, of which the best known is the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral by Nicholas of Verdun and others ca — The Stavelot Triptych and Reliquary of St.
Maurus are other examples of Mosan enamelwork. Large reliquaries and altar frontals were built around a wooden frame, but smaller caskets were all metal and enamel.
Metalwork: Metalwork, useful and decorative objects fashioned of various metals, including copper, iron, silver, bronze, lead, gold, and brass. The earliest man-made objects were of stone, wood, bone, and earth. It was only later that humans learned to extract metals from the earth and to hammer them into.
Gardner Cassatt, Horace Magee, and B. At times there would be as many as 7 different glass plants operating in this city many started by this original list of illustrious names in the glass industry. Original production at Jeannette included wide mouth jars, pressed glass headlamp lenses, and bottles. These items were manufactured using a semi-automatic glass blowing machine which had been invented in The company name was soon changed to the Jeannette Glass Company and the product line expanded.
Architects had begun using a new product in the design of storefront transom windows called prism glass. Prism glass scattered the light transmitted through the transom window strip above a storefront enabling it to more efficiently light the interior spaces. In Jeannette Glass added prism glass to their product line. American 3-Way Luxfer Prism Company then purchased controlling interest in the plant to make sure that prism glass would not be in short supply. The glass company operations were all focussed on press ware from that point.
Plant improvements were finished in Prism glass, meanwhile, was on the way out. With the advent of electricity the demand for the product fell off quickly. American 3-Way Luxfer kept controlling interest in Jeannette Glass until and actually maintained a lot of control of Jeannette Glass unofficially even after that.
Antique Shops in Lancashire
Figures are for for Birmingham and the Black Country: In the census takers found that In it was found that 51 establishments employing 2, workers remained in the trade in Birmingham and the Black Country.
A nice difficult to find matching set of printed Beach Groups Royal Engineers & 8th GHQ Troops Engineers formation patches This is a good example of a hard to find matching set of printed Beach Groups Royal Engineers & 8th GHQ Troops Engineers formation patches.
Share this article Share It is believed the ship was transporting the incoming Spanish ambassador from Seville to his new colonial home on the island of Hispaniola, now the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Onboard was thousands of top quality dining sets bound for the tables of his luxurious mansion. But disaster struck when the ship sunk after hitting rocks on the easternmost tip of the island off Punta Cana. They were discovered in a sunken galleon near the Dominican Republic Experts say the ambassador was the only survivor of the wreck – but his expensive possessions were not so fortunate and they went down with the ship.
The wreck was only discovered in and the excavation process is still ongoing. Three quarters of the items discovered will remain in the possession of the Dominican Republic while the rest has been given to the treasure hunting divers. The salvage team had to chisel through several inches of rock to uncover the stunning artefacts. Some pieces are said to be in as good a condition as when they were made.
Did the Templars Hide the Ark of the Covenant? Unraveling the Cove-Jones Cipher
Characteristics[ edit ] Outside Romanesque architecture, the art of the period was characterised by a vigorous style in both sculpture and painting. The latter continued to follow essentially Byzantine iconographic models for the most common subjects in churches, which remained Christ in Majesty , the Last Judgement and scenes from the Life of Christ. In illuminated manuscripts more originality is seen, as new scenes needed to be depicted. The most lavishly decorated manuscripts of this period were bibles and psalters.
The same originality applied to the capitals of columns: The large wooden crucifix was a German innovation at the very start of the period, as were free-standing statues of the enthroned Madonna.
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The seats were corded or dished hollowed in wood and topped with a pad or cushion. The ancient Greek klismos was once considered one of the most elegant chair designs. The seat, of plaited cord, was supported on sharply curved sabre-shaped legs, tapering to the feet. The horizontal back rail, curved to fit the body, was supported on three uprights.
The scissors chair , or X-chair, which had a seat supported on an X-shaped frame, dates back at least to Roman times. It was especially popular in the 14th and 15th centuries in western Europe and reached great heights of elegance in Italy during the Renaissance. Renaissance chairs were of two principal varieties: In Tudor England the chair for the master of the house had a heavy boxlike frame and was placed on a dais in the great hall.
Turned shaped on a lathe chairs, which had been used from early times, reached their most elaborate forms at this time, their frames consisting of turned posts and spindles. Many chairs in the 16th century depended on upholstery for decoration. Square in outline, this type had a back formed by a pair of uprights spanned by a strip of velvet or brocade trimmed with fringes or a strip of leather , sometimes tooled. The material was held in place by large-headed brass nails.
In the 17th century large numbers of richly carved chairs were produced. In Italy many pieces of furniture were the work of sculptors, the most outstanding of whom was Andrea Brustolon.